The evolution of transsphenoidal surgery, illustration made for a presentation.
The transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification.
Second in line you can see Harvey Cushing that was the first to describe the sublabial approach to the sella turcica around 1912.
After that, Gerard Guiot, who introduce the fluoroscopic image guidance to transsphenoidal surgery what guaranteed the survival of this approach.
Jules Hardy learned Guiot’s techniques including fluoroscopy, and amplified them with the integration of the operating microscope, which provided superior magnification and illumination.
At the end of the evolution line, you can see the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach which is a valid surgical option today.